File this one under “You may very well already know this, but I didn’t.”
Just posting in case I can save someone a few minutes.
Anyway, I needed to create a sample which demonstrated using Tableau User Filters against a dimension attribute coming from an SSAS cube. The problem I faced was how to actually access the dimension attribute in question, since they don’t automatically show up in the Calculated Field dialog’s Field list.
Short answer: Add the field to your Level of Detail:
Don’t know why I didn’t think of this earlier since the LOD shelf is our friend in terms of getting a field to show up elsewhere, but whatever.
After adding the dimension to LOD, it’ll appear in the Fields list. In the screencap below, I’m adding a condition filter (Filter | Condition Tab | By Formula) to the User Name field on LOD so that we can only see rows where the user logged into Tableau Server matches the [User Name] in the cube’s [User Names] dimension: